A Report into Kurdish Abuse in

Turkmeneli

Mofak Salman Kerkuklu

TABLE OF COTETS

1. ITRODUCTIO ------------------------------------------------------------- 5

1.1 Turkmen at the Monarchy era --------------------------------------------------------- 6

1.2 The Abdul Karim Qasim period (1958–1963) -------------------------------------- 7

1.3 The social era of General Abdul-Salam Arif (1963–1967) ----------------------- 8

1.4 The Ba’ath Period (1968–2003) -------------------------------------------------------- 8

1.5 The provisional constitution of 1970 ------------------------------------------------ 10

1.6 The ational Congress of the Ba'ath Party in 1971 ----------------------------- 11

1.7 The Iraq and Iran War 1980–1988 (The First Gulf War) ---------------------- 15

1.8 The uprising of 1991 -------------------------------------------------------------------- 15

1.9 Occupation era 2003 -------------------------------------------------------------------- 17

1.10 The ew Iraqi Constitution ----------------------------------------------------------- 20

1.11 The attack on the Iraqi Turkmen front in Kirkuk ------------------------------ 21

Purpose and scope

This book was written with four clear purposes in mind: firstly, to make an assessment of the

current position of Turkmen in Kirkuk;

Turkmen after the toppling of Saddam Hussein’s regime; thirdly, to introduce a brief history

of the Turkmen in Iraq to the world; and finally, to draw the world’s attention to the situation

and oppression of Turkmen in Iraq.

I would like to dedicate this book to e

to Turkmen who died under torture in Iraqi prisons; to all Turkmen whose sons and daughters

were executed by the Iraqi regime; to all Turkmen who fought and died without seeing a free

Turkmen homeland; and to the Turkmen city of Kirkuk

cultural {xe "cultural"} and political life for those Turkmen resisting the Kurdish

occupation{xe "occupation"}.

This book would not have been written without the support of Turkmen all o

Therefore, first and foremost, my sincere thanks are to David Hamill and Enda Costello

(Ireland) and I would also like to extend and express my sincere thanks to Ayshan Salman.

{xe "Turkmeneli"}I would also like to thank my family and last,

to my martyred brother, surgeon Dr Burhan Mohammed Salman

who motivated and encouraged me from childhood to fight for the Turkmen cause in the

Turkmeneli.

Dr. Burhan Mohammed Salman

{xe "Iraq"}secondly, to highlight the oppression of

fter every Turkmen who has been detained in Iraqi prisons;

nd Kirkuk{xe "Kirkuk"}, which is a bastion of

but not least, my thanks go

{xe "Salman"

{xe "Salman"} Kerkuklu, Iraq–Iran Gulf war, 1982

very , over the world.

 

Salman"} Kerkuklu

Dr. Burhan Mohammed Salman

{xe "Salman"} Kerkuklu, Iraq–Iran Gulf war, 1982

Chapter One

1. Introduction

A key to understanding why the maintenance of Iraq's territorial integrity is viewed by many as

critical is knowledge of the country's enormous ethnic and religious diversity, the aspirations of

these groups and the problems they now face. One of these ethno-linguistic groups is the Turkmen

[1], who have made a major effort to define themselves, both internally and to the world

community. Their real population has always been suppressed by the authorities in Iraq for

political reasons and is officially estimated at 2%, whereas in reality their number should be put

between 2.5 and 3 million, i.e. 12% of the Iraqi population. The Turkmen of Iraq settled in

Turkmeneli (Turkmen land) [2]. Over the centuries, Turkmen have played a constructive role in

Iraq, either by defending against foreign invaders or by bringing civilisation. Their monuments

and architectural remains exist all over Iraq and they lived in harmony with all ethnic groups

around them. They lived with justice and tolerance.

The Turkmen are a Turkic group with a unique heritage and culture, as well as linguistic, historical

and cultural links with the surrounding Turkic groups, such as those in Turkey and Azerbaijan.

Their spoken language is closer to Azeri but their official written language is similar to the

Turkish spoken in present-day Turkey. The Turkmen of Iraq settled in Turkmeneli in three

successive and constant migrations from Central Asia, and increased their numbers; this enabled

them to establish six states in Iraq:

1. The Seljuks

2. The Atabegs

3. The Ilkhanids

4. The Jalairids

5. The Kara Koyunlu, “Black sheep”

6. The Ak Koyunlu, “White sheep”

Turkmen have been living in present Iraq{xe "Iraq"} for over a millennium. Yet, since they

were left outside the borders of a new Turkey{xe "Turkey"} in an artificially created Iraq,

Turkmen felt the heavy-handed treatment by successive Arab{xe "Arab"} rulers, the worst of

whom were the Ba’ath Party. Though the Turkmen of Iraq consist one of the three major

entities of the modern Iraqi State, the Turkmen have had the least of advantages. Since the

foundation of Iraq{xe "Iraq"} in the aftermath of the First World War, the existence of

Turkmen has been denied by the official regimes in Baghdad{xe "Baghdad"} in accordance

1 Turkmen The Iraqi Turkmen live in an area that they call “Turkmenia” in Latin or “Turkmeneli” which means,

“Land of the Turkmen”. It was referred to as “Turcomania” by the British geographer William Guthrie in 1785. The

Turkmen are Turkic groups that have a unique heritage and culture as well as linguistic, historical and cultural links

with the surrounding Turkic groups such as those in Turkey and Azerbaijan. Their spoken language is closer to Azeri

but their official written language is like the Turkish spoken in present-day Turkey. Their real population has always

being suppressed by the authorities in Iraq for political reasons and estimated at 2%, whereas in reality their numbers

are more realistically between 2.5 to 3 million, i .e. 12% of the Iraqi population.

2 Turkmeneli is a diagonal strip of land{xe "land"} stretching from the Syrian and Turkish border areas from around

Telafer in the north of Iraq, reaching down to the town of Mandeli on the Iranian border in Central Iraq{xe

"Telafer"}. The Turkmen of Iraq settled in Turkmeneli in three successive and constant migrations from Central Asia,

which increased their numbers and enabled them to establish six states in Iraq.